长期超负荷工作引发中风&基因革命有望解决人体的器官移植问题

作者:i 科学有趣 / 公众号:lucy141224 发布时间:2019-06-27

原汁原味的Sci & Tech News weekly
Volume 8 19年6月26日
Editor: Dr. Collin F. Hu
Health:本期选择了一篇健康领域的文章,它报道的研究是关于长时间的工作所引发的危害。
长期的长时间的工作会引发将康问题,在传统的研究中,把这个危害称为“亚健康”状态。但是这篇新闻可以看出西方的科学研究对这个问题的看法与传统的研究方法是不一样的。
这篇研究中,首先定义了什么是长时间的工作(一年至少有50天,工作超过10个小时。),研究的方法是通过大数据来发现,长时间的疲劳工作与这些人发生中风的数据存在一个关联(比如长时间工作的人,平均会有更高的概率中风)。
说到关联,我脑袋里又会想起有一次聊天的时候,一个声音提醒我,数据间的关联性并不代表因果性。在社会科学领域,确实是这样在。
在此之前,我还很少考虑这个问题。在物理学领域,事情的原因,往往很明白,就是力或者从另外的角度说,能量。但在社会科学领域(也包括心理学,医学等),这是一个需要认真考虑的问题,尤其是单纯的大数据研究,缺乏对系统机理的探讨。比如,我知道某年微软的IE浏览器的销售量与纽约的犯罪率呈现出相关性。我想,只有傻子才会认为是因为A引起了B。
所以,如果要对这篇文章的观点提出批评的话,可以问的一个问题是,我们确实看到了这种长时间工作与中风之间的联系,但是这种联系是否就是因果性的?比如我猜测,一般喜欢长时间工作的人,也都喜欢喝咖啡或者一些提神的饮料,那么是否是这些饮料导致他们中风的,这才是导致他们中风的“因”?
这篇新闻报道也说了,这个研究并没有寻找病人发生中风的机理,只是看到了两个数据之间的关联,并没有找在这个数据之外的原因。
但请大家注意,这个关于因果性关系的问题,是科学内部的问题。与传统养生中的模糊概念是很不一样的。在传统的养生中,会提出长时间的工作会引发所谓的“亚健康”状态。但到底什么是亚健康,到底是什么引发了亚健康状态?与很多因素有关吗,不睡觉,晚上喝茶,“上火”时吃芒果,如何来研究呢?
Long working hours 'linked to stroke risk'
BBC June 20 2019
[What is it?] Working long hours is linked to an increased risk of stroke, researchers say. Long hours were defined in the French study as more than 10 hours on at least 50 days per year. People who did long hours for more than a decade were at the greatest risk of stroke, they suggest. But the UK's Stroke Association said there were lots of things people could do to counteract the effects of longhours, like exercising and eating well. … Part-time workers and those whosuffered strokes before working long hours were excluded from the study.
stroke:中风
“Long hours”在这段话中有个严格的定义。在中文的语境下,这是一个模糊的概念,但在科学中,“长时间”是一个可以严格测量的定义了。
[How to do it? ]The researchers, from Angers University and the French National Instituteof Health and Medical Research, looked at data on age, smoking and working hours from a population study of more than 143,000 adults. Just under a third worked long hours, with 10% working long hours for 10 years or more. Overall,1,224 had had a stroke.
[How to deal with it?] "As a clinician, I will advise my patients to work more efficiently and I plan to follow my own advice." This study looked at numbers, rather than reasons, but other research has found people who run their own businesses, CEOs and managers seem less affected by long hours - as opposed to those working irregular shifts and nights, or who have job-related stress.
通乐娱乐网址读13遍的英语句子:
1.Long hours were defined in the French study as more than 10 hours on at least 50 days per year.
2.Just under a third worked long hours, with 10% working long hours for 10 years or more.
3.This study looked at numbers, rather than reasons, but other research has found people who run their own businesses, CEOs and managers seem less affected by long hours - as opposed to those working irregular shifts and nights, or who have job-related stress.
Genetics:近来生物医疗的进展可以说是革命性的,一大批用传统方法得不到治疗的遗传性疾病,现在有望得到最前沿生物研究带来的治疗,本文报道的研究是用最前沿的基因编辑技术来改造猪的器官来解决人体器官的移植问题。
分子生物学家于是利用基因编辑技术,以此来改变生物的某些性状,到现在已经有了几十年的历史了。但最近CRISPR-CAS9这套编辑工具的发现,大大的加速了这项技术的应用。因为这套系统的方便和廉价,使得在世界范围内掀起了基因编辑技术应用的热潮。目前已被用在了植物,动物,甚至人体上。
本期所选的报道是对猪器官的基因改造,使之解决人的器官移植问题。科学家在做实验,这些实验因为涉及到“大型动物”,所以有一些伦理规范必须遵守,目前这项技术还在动物实验阶段。这些被改造过的基因还在猴子体内,但被器官移植的猴子的存活率还不是很一致,有时多,有时少,科学家正在试图解决这些问题。
A CRISPR startup is testing pig organs in monkeys to see if they’re safe for us
By Karen Weintraub MIT Technology Review Jun 12, 2019
[What is it?]In 2017, Harvard University geneticist George Church predicted that gene-edited pig organs would be transplanted into people within two years—maybe just one. … A startup he cofounded, eGenesis, had made news for its ambitious plans to use CRISPR gene-editing technology to modify pigs so their organs could be safely transplanted into humans without being rejected. That could solve a critical shortage of human organs available for transplant.
其实把猪的器官移植到人体内,有两个拦路虎的问题需要解决,1,猪身体内(包括要移植的器官)带有一些病毒,这些病毒会对人产生危害。这个问题在去年的时候已经被一组科学家用基因编辑技术解决。2,人体本身对外来的器官会有排异反应,这项研究试图要解决的就是这个问题。
[How it matters?] Doctors have dreamed for decades of using pigs to solve the organ shortage by transplanting their kidneys, hearts, and even lungs into human patients to replace organs that have stopped working. Right now, more than 100,000 Americans are waiting on transplant lists. In the last few years scientists have achieved some major miles tones toward such“xenotransplantation.”
[Background] Thanks to such scientific advances, transplant surgeons are now debating how soon a test in a human might be risked. … Before pig organs can be tested in humans, however, there are still some key problems to overcome. Results with monkeys haven’t been very consistent, regulators haven’t said publicly under what conditions they’ll agree to a human test, and there’s debate over just how extensively modified the pigs should be.
[Future research] In addition, Yang says her company has now introduced a “double digit” number of gene edits (both cutting and adding genes) to make the organs less likely to trigger immune rejection. These alterations are probably similar to those created by Revivicor. She has called her pigs the “most advanced” genetically modified animals on earth. … Yang believes a major remaining challenge for the field is to get consistent results in pig-to-monkey transplants. … Doing so requires large numbers of pig organs.Yang says eGenesis has produced more than 100 pigs in the US, and its Chinese partner Qihan Biotech, based in Hangzhou, has raised hundreds, experimenting with different genetic changes.
[Debates] When it comes to the use of animals, likes pigs and baboons, companies are trying to be as discreet as possible. They don't say where the pigs are kept and, in an interview, Markmann would not say the word monkey, instead using the term "large animal." The animal rights organization PETA says it opposes the research because "pigs are individuals, not spare parts." … Muhammad Mohiuddin, director of the program in cardiac xenotransplantation for the University of Maryland School of Medicine, believes removing the viral genes is“over kill” and could harm the animals if it leads to unintended effects.Instead, he thinks the sweet spot will be eight or nine gene edits to yield a pig with multiple usable organs—rather than making one pig for heart transplants and another for kidneys. “Otherwise the organs go to waste,” hesays.
通乐娱乐网址读13遍的英语句子:
1.A startup he cofounded, eGenesis, had made news for its ambitious plans to use CRISPR gene-editing technology to modify pigs so their organs could be safely transplanted into humans without being rejected.
2.Doctors have dreamed for decades of using pigs to solve the organ shortage by transplanting their kidneys, hearts, and even lungs into human patients to replace organs that have stopped working.
3.Thanks to such scientific advances, transplant surgeons are now debating how soon a test in a human might be risked.
4.When it comes to the use of animals, likes pigs and baboons, companies are trying to be as discreet as possible.

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